In Hinduism, what is the relationship between spirituality and health?
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In Hinduism, what is the relationship between spirituality and health?

By July 22, 2022 No Comments

This article is based on a primer written for the Dr. Weil Integrative Medicine fellowship at the University of Arizona several years ago by Arvind Chandrakantan MD and Suhag A. Shukla.

Hinduism is the world’s oldest living religion.

It is a natural religion, meaning its philosophies and practices are considered universally accessible through sincere study, reason, and experience apart from special revelation. Hinduism is also an indigenous religion made up of a diverse family of philosophies and traditions that have been practiced primarily throughout Asia for thousands of years. Today, Hinduism is a global religion with adherents representing virtually every racial, ethnic, and national background and living on every continent, and comprising majorities in three countries: India, Nepal, and Mauritius.

Most traditions, sects, or schools within Hinduism share certain distinctive, foundational concepts despite the absence of an identifiable beginning in history, single founder, central religious establishment, or sole authoritative scripture. Two of these foundational concepts are that of the oneness of existence and pluralism.

All beings, from the smallest organism to man, are considered manifestations of the Divine (existence, pure being, light of consciousness) or reflections of the Divine’s qualities, depending upon the school of thought. Because of this shared divinity, Hinduism views the universe as a family or, in Sanskrit, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam.

Mankind, because it is believed to be the most spiritually evolved, thus carries a special responsibility to honor the equal worth of all people and the underlying unity of existence through one’s relationship with oneself and others. Ensuring that  one’s thoughts, words, and actions uphold and promote values such as truth, kindness, equanimity, empathy, generosity, and equal regard is how this responsibility is met.

Hinduism, at its core, is a holistic tradition.  Its teachings and practices not only inform a Hindu’s beliefs and worldview, but touch every aspect of daily life — from how a Hindu may eat, pray, and act, to how she may take care of herself and others, treat illnesses, and deal with death and dying.  Teachings also describe quite elaborately, the constant interplay between the natural world, the Universe, and the individual.  

Hindus have long enjoyed a dynamic tradition of scientific inquiry and application, many of the results of which form the basis of well-known spiritual-scientific disciplines, including ayurveda, siddha and other systems of traditional medicine, yoga, vāstu shāstra (spatial and architectural science), and jyotish shāstra (astrology), to name a few.  The earliest surgical techniques too originated in ancient India, many of which continue to be the foundation for modern surgery.  They were developed by Sushrata (~800 B.C.E.), who is considered the Father of Surgery.  In the Sanskrit text, Sushrata Samhita, he meticulously described eight categories of surgery, over 300 surgical techniques, and 120 surgical instruments as extensions of the wellness and therapeutic regimens of ayurveda.  

Despite the ostensibly secular and physical nature of these disciplines, each is premised on specific spiritual or metaphysical principles (discussed below) and ultimately aimed towards spiritual growth and evolution.  Hinduism is thus considered more a way of life or way of being rather than a religion. Spirituality, science, medicine, and in turn, health, not only comfortably coexist in the Hindu world, but are intricately interwoven.

Why does one get sick?

The Hindu answer to why one may get sick lies in its philosophical framework of karma, dharma, and reincarnation.


Spiritual evolution is guided by karmaKarma is the universal law of cause and effect. The critical and subtler understanding of karma is that each action has a reaction and that this cycle is endless. Thus if one sows goodness, one reaps goodness and conversely, if one sows evil, one will reap evil, either in this lifetime or in future lifetimes. To avoid incurring “karmic debt,” so to speak, Hindus must strive to remain unattached to the fruits of their virtuous action in thought, word, and deed. When one can work selflessly, in other words, without expecting rewards or attachment to the fruits of one’s actions, Hindus believe that society as a whole benefits and the individual is freed from the cycle of karma and reincarnation.  Also, karma should be viewed more as either positively or negatively affecting one’s spiritual progress as opposed to absolutes of “good” or “bad.”

In the context of health, be it illness, disease, and bodily suffering, or healing, both may be understood to be the result of karma. While a simplistic first glance at the concept of karma might lead one to 1) callously minimize suffering as simply “karma;2) erroneously conclude that illness is the result of bad karma and health that of good; or 3) throw one’s hands up in either accepting one’s own suffering or one’s inability to alleviate another’s suffering due to a sense of futility in light of fate.  The Hindu view is far more complex and judgments such as these are ill-informed.

Interestingly, all three oversimplifications are interrelated. First, Hinduism warns that it is impossible to understand the complexities of past karma and how it may be playing out in the present.  A present situation could have already been mitigated or aggravated by actions in the recent past (current lifetime).  In suffering, one may actually experience life lessons that lead to spiritual progress. Or in the alternative, healing may enable an individual to continue, after being temporary stalled, on a path of destructive behavior.  The possibilities are endless and as such, lead to the second clarification, and that is that because one cannot fully understand the nature of suffering or healing and their effect on one’s spiritual progress, one also cannot know or understand their karmic cause or effect; one can only understand that the suffering or healing, and one’s actions related to such are either burning off karmic debt or incurring karma.  Lastly, karma is not fate, but a proactive means by which individuals, both those suffering and those providing healing, shape their own destinies, with kind, compassionate, and selfless action leading towards spiritual advancement.  Those providing comfort and healing, in recognition of all beings’ shared divine Source, should see the recipient as an extension of their Self (soul).


Dharma is a multi-layered term and its meaning dependent on context. It is also the mode of conduct for an individual that is most conducive to spiritual growth. There are several categories of dharma, including Sanatana Dharma or Eternal Law, which encompasses the inherent laws of nature and the Divine, and samanya dharma and vishesha dharma. 

Sāmānyā dharma includes general laws that govern all forms and functions, including one’s duty to strive towards and achieve ideals such as contentment; forgiveness; self-restraint; non-stealing; purity; control of senses; discrimination between right and wrong; spiritual knowledge; truthfulness; and absence of anger.  These ethical ideals or precepts are commonly known as yamas and niyamas.

Vishesha dharma, or special duties, expound upon social law or the laws defining an individual’s responsibilities within the nation, society, community and family; law according to life stage or the laws governing age-appropriate duties related to the natural process of maturing from childhood to old age; and personal law or the individualized application of dharma according to an individual’s sum of past karma, intelligence, aptitudes, tendencies, physical characteristics and community.


Hindu philosophies hold that every being, human and non-human (ie. plants and animals), has an ātmān (Consciousness, soul, Existence | Consciousness | Bliss).  This ātmān is related to the one, all-pervasive Divine.  The degree of the relationship between the individual ātmān and Divine differs amongst Hindu schools of thought and ranges from absolute duality to absolute non-duality (one in the same), with several perspectives in between.  

Regardless of which relational belief a Hindu holds, most Hindus believe that the ātmān is immortal and evolves by experiencing varied lives through the process wherein the ātmān reincarnates into different physical bodies through cycles of birth and death. Guided by the Laws of Karma (see above), the ātmān continues on its path of spiritual growth and evolution. The ultimate aim of Hindus is for the ātmān to attain freedom from this continuous cycle of birth and rebirth and discover its divine origin (moksha).  Because life and death are not viewed as mutually exclusive, but rather a continuum, the concept reincarnation provides many Hindus solace in the knowledge that physical suffering affects only the impermanent body and not the eternal, immortal ātmān.

What is the role of spirituality in health, wellness, and life? 

Four Goals of Life

The four traditional goals of life (purushārthas) lend a good understanding to how Hindus view the relationship between spirituality and health and wellness.  There are four life goals or objectives that are meant to enable the individual to grow and evolve spiritually. These goals are:

  1. Dharma: A sense of goodness, balance, and universal well-being
  2. Artha: A sense of security and material prosperity
  3. Kāma: A sense of mental and physical happiness
  4. Moksha: A sense of wholeness, which comes through spiritual freedom and our endeavors

Kāma and artha are legitimate aims in Hinduism, but must always be guided by dharma. Thus, any of these goals must be pursued in balance of the others, according to one’s stage in life, in moderation, and always with the greater good and ultimate individual life goal in mind.  The human body, including the mind, is thus the vehicle which enables an individual to pursue and achieve the four goals throughout life.

Four Life Stages

According to Hindu teachings, most individuals live through four stages (āshramas) in life.  These stages are student (brahmacharya), householder (grhasta), retiree (vānaprastha), and renunciant (sanyāsa).  

The student stage is marked with both physical and intellectual discipline, including celibacy and spiritual and secular study.  The ultimate purpose of student life is acquiring knowledge and building character.  This stage traditionally begins at age of seven and ends once one’s studies are complete.  

Upon completion of one’s studies, the householder stage follows.  As the term implies, householder is a phase which begins with marriage and includes raising a family.  This phase also is the period in which three of the four goals of life, namely dharma, kāma, and artha, are actively pursued alongside religious duties.  

The retiree stage begins when one’s obligations to raising children ends — generally when the child enters his or her own householder stage.  This phase involves gradual withdrawal from social and material obligations and attachments and ushers in a time of increased religious and spiritual focus. In the past, this withdrawal would often be literal, with the individual relocating to live in forests or outskirts of villages and minimizing interactions with others. In modern times, while many retirees decrease their focus on the mundane and increase their spiritual and religious practices, few leave or completely detach from family and society. 

The final stage is that of renunciation.  The individual renounces all familial and social ties to dedicate his or her life to pursuing moksha through prayer, meditation, and contemplation.  The final stage of the renunciant has always been optional. Only those with sufficient spiritual maturity take to sanyasa, often under the guidance of a spiritual guru. 

While most Hindus go through the stages of life in the order in which they are prescribed, some may choose to forego the middle stages and proceed from student to renunciant.  This individual makes a lifetime commitment to monkhood which may include a renunciation of all duties and obligations of family life.  Lifetime vows may also include vows of celibacy, renunciation of wealth and personal property, contemplative study of scripture, daily meditation and prayer, certain dietary restrictions, and simple living among others.  

With regard to health and healing, where a Hindu is in terms of life stage may significantly impact health-related decisions such as life-prolonging treatments versus palliative treatment.

What are the forms of wellness and healing that Hindus have traditionally relied upon?


Ayurveda is the most recognized and practiced Vedic medicinal tradition around the world.  The aim of Ayurveda is to cultivate a healthy mind and body in order to pursue the four Purushārthas (goals of life).  Ayurveda is categorized as having eight limbs or angas which are based on on the different systems of the body and their treatments. The eight anga or limbs are:

  1. Kāya chikitsa – general medicine
  2. Bāla – children and their diseases and treatment (Pediatrics)
  3. Graha – mental disorders, seizure by spirits and their treatment (Psychiatry)
  4. Urdvānga – diseases of face, eyes, nose, throat, and ears and their treatment
  5. Salya – surgery
  6. Damshtra – different kinds of poisons and their treatment (Toxicology)
  7. Jarā – anti-aging rejuvenatory therapies
  8. Vrsha – male and female infertility and their treatment

Ayurveda is based on Panchabhautika Siddhānta, or the Doctrine of the Five Elements.  The five elements include Prthvi (earth), Ap (water), Tejas (fire), Vāyu (air), and Ākāsa (ether). These elements are said to pervade the universe both in their gross and subtle forms in all living and non-living things.  Thus, everything in nature is understood as interrelated and constituted, in varying proportions, of these elements.

Ayurvedic treatments are based on Tridosha Siddhānta, or the Doctrine of The Three Humors.  Dosha is a  Sanskrit word which means “that which vitiates or aggravates.”  The three doshas are vatta (air and ether dominant), pitta (fire and water dominant), and kapha (water and earth dominant)They are the building blocks of the body, both physiologically and psychologically.  When the three doshas are in equilibrium, they bring about health and when out of balance, cause disease.

Ayurveda teaches that daily routine, including diet, physical activity, and environment, collectively affect the balance and imbalance of doshas.  Ayurveda thus prescribes daily and seasonal routines, including diet and physical regimen, to help maintain harmony of the three doshas.  

Siddha Medicine

Like Ayurveda, Siddha medicine is considered by many to be a science of Vedic origins.  It is, however, a different form of medicine and more commonly practiced in the southern regions of India. Ayurveda and Siddha medicine share many commonalities including a focus on preventative medicine, the use of herb-derived medicines, and a basis in the tridosha theory.  

In the Siddha medicinal system, the three doshas are referred to as vatta, pitta, and kapham.  They are believed to be generally present in all individuals in a proportion of 4:2:1, but this ratio may change with age.  Disease reflects an imbalance in the ratio, thus, Siddha treatments too are aimed towards correcting imbalances.   

Unlike Ayurveda, Siddha emphasizes adherence to yamas and niyamas (ethical ideals or precepts) as a part of a wellness lifestyle.  The use of animal products is also more common in Siddha medicine than in Ayurveda.  Siddha medicine also has more external applications of medicines (32 different methods) as opposed to many of the surgical techniques found in Ayurveda.  Siddha practitioners are often referred to as Naturopaths, Herbologists, or Traditional Medicine Practitioners.


At its broadest, yoga, from the root word “yuj” in Sanskrit, means to unite. Most Hindu texts discuss yoga as a practice to control the senses and ultimately, the mind. The most famous is the Bhagavad Gita (dating back to 6th-3rd Century BCE), which speaks of four types of yoga – bhakti, or devotion; jnāna, or knowledge; karma, or action; and dhyāna, or concentration (often referred to as raja yoga, though not all sources agree on the term) – as paths to achieve moksha, the ultimate goal according to Hindu understanding.

Of the four, the description of dhyana yoga has the most in common with yoga as it is largely understood today. Yet, while the yogas are described as four distinct paths, they are all ultimately interdependent, and with the full practice of one, comes the inclusion of the remaining three.

That which is practiced as “Hatha Yoga” – a form of dhyāna or rāja Yoga – in much of the Western world is more focused on only a single limb of Yoga: āsana (posture).  While āsana is only one and a comparatively minor  aspect of the broader holistic discipline of Yoga, it does offer many health benefits.  

Beyond increasing muscle tone and flexibility, regular practice of asana has been associated with lower blood pressure, relief of back pain and arthritis, and boosting of the immune system [5]. Increasingly, many believe āsana practice to reduce Attention Deficit Disorder (AD/HD) [6] in children, and recent studies have shown it improves general behavior and grades [7].  However, the full potential of the physiological, intellectual, and spiritual benefits of āsana are likely increased manifold if practiced as a component of the holistic practice of Yoga which includes:

  1. Yama :  ethical ideals or precepts guiding interactions with others and the world
  2. Niyama :  ethical ideals or precepts guiding one’s inner world
  3. Āsanās :  physical postures
  4. Prānāyama :  breathing exercises (control of prana)
  5. Pratyahāra :  control of the senses
  6. Dhārana :  concentration and cultivating inner perceptual awareness
  7. Dhyāna :  devotion and/or meditation on the Divine
  8. Samādhi :  union with the Divine

What does it mean to “heal” or “be healed”? How does “healing” occur?

“Healing” and “being healed’ have different contextual meanings depending on which traditional system of medicine is being utilized.  All traditional systems share a holistic viewpoint about illness. All modalities of healing in Hinduism seek to restore the balance between the body, mind, and soul (spirit). Sickness is viewed as a combination of past events (prarabdha karma), present events, including deviations from a healthy lifestyle. It is also believed to be an imbalance in the tridosha (three doshas) and all traditional therapies are directed towards balancing the doshas, as well as working on the physical, psychological, and spiritual nature of illness. 

Healing in the traditional context thus refers to correction of imbalance. Ayurveda and Siddha providers will routinely prescribe prayer, varying degrees of austerity in food, rest, and contact with others, as well as medicinal therapies which are geared towards the tridosha equilibrium.  

The Ayurveda or Siddha provider has a variety of methods at his or her disposal. Traditionally, the provider may come and see the patient at his or her home. The provider may also analyze the horoscope of the patient (jyotish shāstra) to see the effect of the planets (grahas) on the individual. Many traditional providers may follow up with examination including pulse analysis (nādijyoshiyam), compassionate listening, and encouraging words. They will also analyze the patient’s diet to determine the predominance of doshas. Based on their analysis, they will prescribe an appropriate diet and medicines to balance the doshas, as well as prayer, asanas, and meditation to assist with the physio-spiritual aspect of illness.

What would you say to a clinician about the faith of his or her Hindu patients as it relates to their partnered efforts towards healing and health promotion?

Hindus may make use of many means of wellness, healing, and health promotion, be they medical or therapeutic (both allopathic and traditional); astrological (jyotish shāstra); spatial (vāstu shāstra); spiritual (prayer, mantra, rituals); etc.   Some forms of destiny may also inform a Hindu patient’s understanding of his or her health (hence the role of Jyotish shāstra, gemology, etc.).  To this end, a health-care provider’s familiarity and openness to traditional therapies, such as Ayurveda, Siddha medicine, and yoga, may assist in gaining the patient’s confidence and trust. 

Karma may play very strongly into the belief of how, when, and why life-altering disease or illness has occurred as may other Hindu concepts, including dharma and lifestage.  Many Hindus will recognize and welcome their own active role in the management of their disease or symptoms, thus a health-care provider may serve as a catalyst in the patient’s harnessing of the healing potential of concepts such as karma and dharma.  Accordingly, a basic understanding of Hindu philosophy, especially karma, dharma, and reincarnation will also prove useful in any discussions on spirituality, healing, and health promotion.

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10/30/22Sanatana Dharma in the Movies

Hinduism is often referred to as Sanatana Dharma (the ‘eternal way’), indicating the religion’s emphasis on eternal truths that are applicable to all of humanity. Thus, it makes sense that a medley of mainstream movies could convey Hindu ideals that resonate strongly with audiences, while not actually talking directly about anything understood by the public as Hindu.

In Groundhog Day, for example, when cynical TV weatherman Phil Collins discovers he is trapped in a time loop, living the same day over and over, only to be released after transforming his character from an egocentric narcissist to a thoughtful and kindhearted philanthropist, it’s hard not to be reminded of the Hindu notion of samsara, a cycle of reincarnation from which a soul attains liberation by realizing its divine nature after lifetimes of spiritual practice. 

Or in The Matrix when Neo chooses the red pill of knowledge over the blue pill of ignorance, and is subsequently unplugged from an illusory world and cast into the truth of reality, the film seems to be conveying a foundational Vedic teaching: that we must transcend our own ignorance — a product of maya, literally meaning “illusion” in Sanskrit — to uncover our true nature. Hindu concepts appear to be further exhibited in Neo’s relationship with Morpheus, which starkly reflects that of a disciple and guru, as the latter reveals to the former the knowledge he needs in order to understand this “true nature.” As Neo’s faith in Morpheus’ words develops, so does his capacity to see past the illusion of the matrix, garnering him the ability to manipulate the laws of this false reality, similar to the Jedi and yogis described earlier.

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10/29/22Hinduism and American Thought

Hindu Americans and the Vedanta philosophy have significantly influenced notable intellectuals such as Henry  David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman, J.D. Salinger, Christopher Isherwood, Aldous Huxley, Huston Smith, and Joseph Campbell just to name a few. Some feel that it started back In 1812, when Thomas Jefferson recommended to John Adams the writings of Joseph Priestley, a Unitarian minister who had published works that compared Christianity to other religions — Hinduism in particular — Adam’s interest was piqued.

Going through Priestley’s writings, Adams became riveted by Hindu thought, as he launched into a five-year exploration of Eastern philosophy. As his knowledge of Hinduism and ancient Indian civilization grew, so did his respect for it. This legacy took shape in the 1830s as Transcendentalism, a philosophical, social, and literary movement that emphasized the spiritual goodness inherent in all people despite the corruption imposed on an individual by society and its institutions. Espousing that divinity pervades all of nature and humanity, Transcendentalists believed divine experience existed in the everyday, and held progressive views on women’s rights, abolition, and education. At the heart of this movement were three of America’s most influential authors: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman, and Henry David Thoreau.

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10/27/22The Hindu Diaspora in Afghanistan

Before becoming an Islamic state, Afghanistan was once home to a medley of religious practices, the oldest being Hinduism. A long time ago, much of Afghanistan was part of an ancient kingdom known as Gandhara, which also covered parts of northern Pakistan.Today, many of Afghanistan’s province names, though slightly altered, are clearly Sanskrit in origin, hinting at the region’s ancient past. To cite a few examples, Balkh comes from the Sanskrit Bhalika, Nangarhar from Nagarahara, and Kabul from Kubha. Though Gandhara’s earliest mention can be found in the Vedas, it is better known for its connections to the Hindu epics the Mahabharata and Ramayana. There is also the historic Asamai temple in Kabul located on a hill named after the Hindu Goddess of hope, Asha. The temple has survived numerous conflicts and attacks but it still stands. The temple is a remnant from Hindu Shahi Kings, who ruled from the Kabul Valley as far back as 850 CE. However, Hindus are indigenous but endangered minorities in Afghanistan, numbering approximately 700 out of a community that recently included over 8,000 members. Many have left for new homes, include in New York which is home to a large Afghani Hindu population.

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10/26/22Dogs and Diwali

According to the 2021-2022 National Pet Owners Survey, 70% of U.S. households (90.5 million homes) owned a pet as of 2022, with 69 million U.S. households having a pet dog. Recognized for their loyalty, service, companionship, and the special relationship they have with humans, Hinduism’s reverence for dogs is expansive, as they are worshiped in festivals and appreciated in connection to a number of Hindu gods and stories. Observed in Nepal, Bhutan, and the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal, Kukar Tihar (the 2nd day of Tihar) honors dogs as messengers that help guide spirits of the deceased across the River of Death. In the Mahabharata, Yudhisthira, his brothers, and the queen Draupadi renounced their kingdom to ascend to the heavens. However, Yudhisthira was the only one that survived along with a dog that had joined them. Yudhisthira refused to go to heaven without the dog, who turned out to be Yamaraj, the God of Death. Sarama, the “female dog of the gods,” was famously asked by Indra to retrieve a herd of cows that were stolen. When the thieves were caught, they tried to bribe Sarama but she refused and now represents those who do not wish to possess but instead find what has been lost. The symbolic import of dogs is further driven in connection with Dattatreya, as he is commonly depicted with four of them to represent the Vedas, the Yugas, the stages of sound, and the inner forces of a human being (will, faculty, hope, and desire).

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10/25/22Black Panther

In 2018, the long-running Marvel comic series Black Panther, was brought to the big screen. A more prominent scene is when M’baku, a character vying for the throne of the fictional country of Wakanda, challenges T’Challa/Black Panther, and yells, “Glory to Hanuman.” However, despite dharma as an unsaid aspect of the characters’ interactions, Black Panther relies slightly more on Hindu symbolism than philosophy. But the significance of Hanuman as a transcendent deity cannot be overlooked, especially at a time when dialogues about global migration, the right to worship, and access to natural resources are becoming more overtly racialized. The film provides more than just an entertainment escape: it reimagines a world in which the current racial and theological paradigms are challenged forcefully. With the film expected to have at least several sequels, there will be more opportunities to reference Hinduism and Hindu iconography.

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One of the most celebrated Hindu festivals, Diwali (dee-VAH-lee) or Deepavali (dee-PAH-va-lee) commemorates the victory of good over evil during the course of five days. The word refers to rows of diyas — or clay lamps — which are put all around homes and places of worship. The light from these lamps symbolizes the illumination within all of us, which can overcome ignorance, represented by darkness. Devotees gather in local temples, homes, or community centers, to spend time with loved ones, make positive goals, and appreciate life.

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On this day, because Diwali is a time for dana (charitable giving) and seva (selfless service), Hindus traditionally perform a deep cleaning of their homes and surroundings, as cleanliness is believed to invoke the presence and blessings of Goddess Lakshmi who, as mentioned earlier, is the Goddess of wealth and prosperity. Many will also make rangoli or kolum (colored patterns of flowers, powder, rice, or sand made on the floor), which are also said to invite auspiciousness. Observers thus begin Diwali by cultivating a spirit of generosity, doing things like giving money to charities, feeding the hungry, and endeavoring to help those in need.

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10/22/22The Hindu Diaspora in Bali

The spread of Hinduism to Southeast Asia established powerful Hindu kingdoms in the region, most notably the Khmer Empire that encompassed modern Cambodia and Thailand, and influential kingdoms in the Indonesia archipelago. Though Buddhism and Hinduism co-existed in the region for several centuries, Buddhism (and Islam in Indonesia) eventually replaced Hinduism as a primary religion. Today, there are approximately five million Hindus in Indonesia, primarily in Bali. As Bali is roughly 90 percent Hindu, this makes it a religious enclave in a country that contains the world’s largest Muslim population. There are also roughly 60,000 Cham Hindus in Vietnam, and smaller numbers in Thailand. Hinduism in Fiji, Malaysia, and Singapore is a much more recent phenomenon, with Hindus arriving in the 19th and early 20th centuries as indentured laborers. Today, Hindus are prominent in politics and business in all three countries, though they continue to experience discrimination as religious minorities.

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10/21/22Smithsonian/American History Exhibit - American Indian experience

In 2014, the first Smithsonian exhibition chronicling the experiences of Indian Americans, many of whom are Hindus,  in the US was unveiled at their National Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC. This exhibit was one of the largest ever produced by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center, occupying 5,000 square feet and reaching millions of visitors. The message behind “Beyond Bollywood: Indian Americans Shape the Nation,” aimed to dispel stereotypes and myths that have followed Indian immigrants since they first arrived in the U.S. in 1790. The exhibit explored the heritage, daily experiences, and the many diverse contributions that immigrants and Indian Americans have made to the United States. The exhibition at the Museum of Natural History includes historical and contemporary images and artifacts, including those that document histories of discrimination and resistance, convey daily experiences, and symbolize achievements across the professions. Music and visual artworks provide commentary on the Indian American experience and form an important component of the exhibition. In 2017, this exhibit went on the road, traveling from city to city so that all could see the impact of Indians on American culture.

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10/20/22Swami Yogananda

Paramahansa Yogananda was a Hindu monk and yogi who came to the United States in 1920 and lived here for the last 32 years of his life. He is considered to be the first major Hindu Guru to settle in the United States. When Swami Yogananda arrived in the US, he made his first speech, made to the International Congress of Religious Liberals, on “The Science of Religion,” and was enthusiastically received. It was soon after that he founded the Self-Realization Fellowship (also known as Yogoda Satsanga Society (YSS) of India) and introduced millions of Americans to the ancient science and philosophy of meditation and Kriya yoga (path of attainment). In 1927, he was invited to the White House by President Calvin Coolidge, making Swami Yogananda the first prominent Indian and Hindu to be hosted in the White House.

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For those of us who are Hindu, we have noticed that some of the biggest Hollywood films produced in the last several decades have mirrored many of Hinduism's most fundamental philosophical ideas. One example is Avatar, a film named for the Sanskrit word avatāra (‘descent’), in which the protagonist, Jake Sully, enters and explores an alien world called Pandora by inhabiting the body of an indigenous 10-foot, blue-skinned being, an idea taken from Hinduism’s depictions of the various avatars of the blue god Vishnu, who are said to descend into our world for upholding dharma. Instead of aligning with the interests of the humans, who merely want to mine Pandora for the valuable mineral unobtanium, Sully fights alongside the alien humanoids native to the world, called Na’vi, who live in harmony with nature, believe all life is sacred, and that all life is connected by a divine force — teachings synonymous with Hinduism. Thus, similar to the avatars of Vishnu, Sully defends and preserves a spiritual culture by defeating those who would destroy it for materialistic pursuit. While this film doesn’t indicate in any direct way that they have anything to do with Hinduism, it’s clear they are communicating Hindu ideas that everyone relates to and understands on a profound level.

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10/18/22Swami Prabhupada

The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), also known as the Hare Krishna movement, was founded in 1966 by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, a highly respected Vaishnava  (devotion to the god Vishnu and his incarnations avatars) scholar and monk. At the age of 70, Swami Prabhupada traveled from India to New York City to bring the Bhakti tradition, or Krishna Consciousness, to the west. In the 11 years before his passing in 1977, Srila Prabhupada translated, with elaborate commentaries, 60 volumes of Vaishnava literature; established more than 100 temples on six continents; and initiated 5,000 disciples. Today, his writings are studied in universities around the globe and are translated into nearly 100 languages. To date, ISKCON has over 400 temples,  dozens of rural communities and eco-sustainable projects, and nearly 100 vegetarian restaurants world-wide with 56 of them in the US. 

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Who was that Hare Krishna at the start of “Get Back”?

10/17/22The Hindu Diaspora in Africa

Hinduism came in waves to Africa, with Southern Africa getting Hindu workers during the early years of British colonization, while East and West Africa experienced Hindu migration during the 20th century. Hinduism’s roughly 0.2% presence in Africa is seen as so inconsequential, most data organizations don’t even bother explicitly mentioning it in their census reports. But Hinduism is Ghana's fastest growing religion and one in which there are steady populations in both Northern and Southern African states. Durban is now home to most of South Africa’s 1.3 million Indians, making it, according to some sources, the largest Indian city outside of India, and thus a most powerful hub of Hindu practice. In the US, there are both communities of African Hindus who have migrated, as well as Black Hindus, who according to the 2019 Pew Survey, make up 2% of the Hindu population in the US.

Hinduism Beyond Africa

Hinduism Around the World

10/16/22Star Wars

George Lucas, the creator of Star Wars, drew much of the inspiration for this major cultural phenomenon from the teachings of his mentor who was a lifelong student of Vedanta. In these films, many aspects of Hinduism are interwoven with the story. Some include Hanuman (Chewbaca and Ewoks), Shakti (force,energy), Yodha (Yoda), Brahman (infinite being). Besides the many philosophical parallels that can be highlighted between Star Wars and Hinduism, Star Wars also exhibits similarities in story structure and character roles to one of India’s famous epics, the Ramayana. Never seen the movie? Now might be the time to see how universally relatable Hindu thought can truly be.

What do the Matrix, Avatar, Groundhog Day, and Star Wars have to do with Hinduism?


The term Ayurveda is derived from the Sanskrit words ayur (life) and veda (science or knowledge), translation to the knowledge of life. Ayurveda is considered to be the oldest healing science, originating in 1000 BCE. Based on the five elements that comprise the universe (space, air, fire, water, and earth), they combine and permutate to create three health principles  that govern the functioning and interplay of a person’s body, mind, and consciousness. These energies are referred to as doshas in Sanskrit. Ayurveda can be used in conjunction with Western medicine and Ayurvedic schools have gained approval as educational institutions in several states.

5 Things to Know About Ayurveda

In Hinduism, What is the Relationship Between Spirituality and Health?


While it’s synonymous to meditation, and seen simply as a doorway to tranquility for yogic practitioners, the true meaning of Om is deeply embedded in Hindu philosophy.

The word Om is defined by Hindu scripture as being the original vibration of the universe, which all other vibrations are able to manifest. Within Hinduism, the meaning and connotations of Om is perceived in a variety of ways. Though heard and often written as “om,” due to the way it sounds when it is repeatedly chanted, the sacred syllable is originally and more accurately spelled as “aum.” Broken down, the three letters of A – U – M represent a number of sacred trinities such as different conditions of consciousness (waking state, dreaming state, and deep sleep state), the deities in charge of the creation, preservation, and destruction of the universe ( Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva), aspects of time (past, present, and future), among many others. 

5 Things to Know About Om

Religious Symbols

10/28/22Dr. Anandibai Joshi

Dr. Anandi Gopal Joshi is credited with being the first woman from India to study medicine in the United States. Born in Bombay in 1865, she was married at the age of ten to an older man who had been her teacher. Dr. Joshi had a child at the age of 13, but the child died when only 10 days old. She believed that with better medical care, the child would have lived, and she frequently cited this as motivation for her desire to attend medical school. Her husband encouraged her in her academic pursuits and in 1883, Joshee joined the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania, now known as the Drexel University College of Medicine in Philadelphia. She graduated in 1886 with her degree in medicine; her M.D. thesis focused on Hindu obstetrics. Unfortunately,  Dr. Joshi was only able to practice medicine for a few months before passing away from tuberculosis.

Science in Hinduism

10/13/22The Hindu Diaspora in Guyana

Hinduism is the religion of almost 25% of Guyana’s population, making it the country with the highest percentage of Hindus in the Western Hemisphere. But from British professional recruiting agents targeting rural and uneducated Indians, to the aggressiveness of Christian proselytization of Hindus with a promise of a better life, Hinduism has been in a steady decline for many decades with many escaping to the United States for better opportunities and to practice their religion freely. Today, over 80% of Guyanese Americans live in the Northeastern United States with heavy concentrations in New Jersey and in New York, where a “Little Guyana”  helps these immigrants stay connected to their Guyanese roots.

Hinduism beyond India: Guyana

Hinduism Around the World

10/12/22Karwa Chauth

Karwa Chauth or Karva Chauth (kuhr-vah-CHOATH) is a North Indian holiday in which wives fast for the longevity and health of their husbands, however, many unmarried women celebrate in hopes of meeting their ideal life partner. Typically, wives spend the day preparing gifts to exchange, and fasting until the moon is visible. It is believed that its light symbolizes love and blessings of a happy life. While there are varying legends behind this holiday’s traditions and meaning, the message of honoring the relationships women form with their family and community prevails.

Karwa Chauth

Hindu Holidays & Dharmic Days Calendar

10/11/22Hinduism and Music

As sound vibration can affect the most subtle element of creation, it is interpreted in Hindu scriptures that spiritual sound vibrations can affect the atman (soul) in a particularly potent way. Such spiritual sound vibrations are said to have the ability to awaken our original spiritual consciousness and help us remember that we are beyond the ambivalence of life, and actually originate from the Divine. As such, the main goal of many types of Hindu musical expression is to help stir us out of our spiritual slumber by evoking feelings of love and connection that help us to better perceive the presence of the Divine within all. Some of the more popular examples of musical expressions within Hinduism include shlokas (verse, or poem), mantras (sacred syllables repeated in prayer), kirtans (congregational singing of mantras), and bhajans (devotional songs). You can find musical spiritual expressions through the US in temples,  Mandirs, and community centers.

The Power of Music According to Hinduism

What is Kirtan?


Yoga is considered Hinduism’s gift to humanity. At its broadest, yoga, from the root word “yuj” in Sanskrit, means to unite. Most Hindu texts discuss yoga as a practice to control the senses and ultimately, the mind. The most famous is the Bhagavad Gita (dating back to 6th-3rd Century BCE), in which Krishna speaks of four types of yoga – bhakti, or devotion; jnana, or knowledge; karma, or action; and dhyana, or concentration (often referred to as raja yoga, though not all sources agree on the term) – as paths to achieve moksha (enlightenment), the ultimate goal according to Hindu understanding. According to a 2016 study,  in the United States there are an estimated 36.7 million people currently practicing yoga in the United States.


The Hindu Roots of Yoga

10/9/22Swami Vivekananda

According to Vedic cosmology, 108 is the basis of creation, representing the universe and all our existence. As the soul is encased in two types of bodies: the physical body (made of earth, water, fire, air, and ether) and the subtle body (composed of intelligence, mind and ego), Swami Viveknanda is often attributed with bringing Hindu teachings and practices — such as yoga and transcendental meditation — to Western audiences. In 1893, he was officially introduced to the United States at the World’s Parliament of Religions in Chicago, where in his speech he called for religious tolerance and described Hinduism as “a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance.” The day that Swami Vivekananda delivered his speech at the Parliament of Religions is now known as ‘World Brotherhood Day.’ And his birthday, known as Swami Vivekananda Jayanti, is honored on January 12th each year. On this day he is commemorated and recognized for his contributions as a modern Hindu monk and respected guru of the Vedanta philosophy of Hinduism. In 1900, Swami Viveknanda founded the Vedanta Society in California and to date there are 36 Vedanta Society Centers in the United States.

Swami Vivekananda Influenced Countless Americans

Hindu Holidays & Dharmic Days Calendar


According to Vedic cosmology, 108 is the basis of creation, representing the universe and all our existence. As the soul is encased in two types of bodies: the physical body (made of earth, water, fire, air, and ether) and the subtle body (composed of intelligence, mind and ego), 108 plays a significant role in keeping these two bodies healthily connected. Hindus believe the body holds seven chakras, or pools of energy, which begin at the bottom of the spine and go all the way down to the top of the head and it is believed there are 108 energy lines that converge to form the heart chakra. Ayurveda says there are 108 hidden spots in the body called marma points, where various tissues like muscles, veins, and ligaments meet. These are vital points of life force, and when they are out of balance, energy cannot properly flow throughout the body. Sun salutations, yogic asanas that honor the sun god Surya, are generally completed in nine rounds of 12 postures, totaling 108. Mantra meditation is usually chanted on a set of 108 beads.   In Hinduism there are 108 Upanishads, the sacred texts of wisdom from ancient sages. Additionally, in the Sanskrit alphabet, there are 54 letters. Each letter has a feminine, or Shakti, and masculine, or Shiva, quality. 54 multiplied by 2 equals 108. Ultimately, breathwork, chanting, studying scripture, and asana’s help harmonize one’s energy with the energy of the supreme spiritual source. These processes become especially effective when they are performed in connection with the number 108. Hindu scriptures strive to remind people of this divine commonality by continuously highlighting the innumerable threads connecting everything in existence. One of these threads is the number 108.

5 Things to know about 108

Here's How the Number 108 Binds Us to the Universe

10/7/22The Hindu Diaspora in Trinidad/Tobago

A decade after slavery was abolished in 1834, the British government began importing indentured labor from India to work on their estates in other countries such as Trinidad and Tobago.  From 1845 to 1917, the ships would continue to arrive, carrying over 140,000 Indians to the island, facilitating Trinidad's population growth from Indian laborers. Today, there are roughly 240,000 declared Hindus in Trinidad and Tobago, comprising about 18% of the island’s population. There are a total of about 300 temples on the island, welcoming all who wish to enter and where many beloved Hindu festivals take place. But for some, the migration journey doesn’t end as New York and Florida have seen the development of large Indo-Caribbean communities.

Hinduism beyond India: Trinidad and Tobago


From ancient tribes to present-day devotees, tattoos have held a special place in Hinduism for centuries. In the Indian states of Bihar and Madhya Pradesh, the Ramnaami community invoked Rama’s protection with tattoos of the name “Rama” in Sanskrit on every inch of their skin, including the tongue and inside the lips.The Mahabharata tells the story of the Pandavas that were exiled to the Kutch district of Gujarat. Today, their descendants - members of the Ribari tribe - live as their ancestors did, with women covered in tattoos that symbolize their people’s strong spirit for survival. Some Hindus consider tattoos as protective emblems,such as tattoos of Hanuman are often used to relieve physical or mental pain. People will often get tattoos of other deities to invoke their blessings. Mehndi, a plant-based temporary tattoo, is commonly done at weddings and religious ceremonies as a form of celebration of love and spirituality. While tattoos have been in Hindu communities for centuries, tattoos as symbols of honor, devotion, and even fashion are incredibly popular today. Hindus and non Hindus alike adorn themselves with Hindu emblems and tattoos that reflect Hindu teachings.

Guidelines for Commercial Use of Hindu Images


Navaratri (nuhv-uh-RA-three) is a nine night celebration of the feminine divine that occurs four times a year — the spring and fall celebrations being amongst the more widely celebrated. Some traditions honor the nine manifestations of Goddess Durga, while others celebrate the three goddesses (Durga, Lakshmi, and Saraswati) with three days dedicated to each. This is a time to recognize the role in which the loving, compassionate, and gentle — yet sometimes powerful and fierce — feminine energy plays in our lives.

Nine Things to Know About Navaratri

Hindu Holidays & Dharmic Days Calendar


Dussehra (duh-sheh-RAH) or Vijayadashmi (vi-juhyuh-dushuh-mee) celebrates the victory of Lord Rama over the ten-headed demon King Ravana. This also marks the end of Ramalila — a brief retelling of the Ramayana and the story of Rama, Sita, and Lakshman in the form of dramatic reading or dance. It also signifies the end of negativity and evil within us (vices, biases, prejudices) for a fresh new beginning. Dussehra often coincides with the end of Navratri and Duga Puja, and celebrations can last ten days, with huge figures of Ravana set ablaze as a reminder that good always prevails over evil.

Hindu Holidays & Dharmic Days Calendar

Hinduism 101 & Women

10/3/22Ahimsa + Cow sanctuaries

Many Hindus hold reverence for the cow as a representation of mother earth, fertility, and Hindu values of selfless service, strength, dignity, and non-harming. Though not all Hindus are vegetarian, for this reason many traditionally abstain from eating beef. This is often linked with the concept of ahimsa (non-violence), which can be applied to diet choices and our interactions with the environment, and potentially determine our next birth, according to the doctrine of karma. This is part of the reason that some Hindus may choose a vegetarian lifestyle as an expression of ahimsa as well as explains the growing number of cow protection projects that are led by individuals who have felt compelled to put their Hindu values into practice. The US is home to several cow protection projects and sanctuaries

Dairy Is Traditionally Sattvic Food, but the Way We Treat Cows Today Can Be Tamasic

Cultured Meat and Animal-Free Dairy Upends the Plant-Based Food Discussion

10/1/2022First Hindu temple in US

The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 facilitated the journey of many Indian immigrants to the United States. In this new land, many created home shrines and community temples to practice and hold pujas (services). As Hindu American populations grew in metropolitan and rural areas, so did the need to find a permanent temple site for worship. In 1906, the Vedanta Society built the Old Temple in San Francisco, California but as this was not considered a formal temple, many don’t credit this with being the first. Others believe it is the Shiva Murugan Temple built in 1957 in Concord, California, whereas others believe it is the Maha Vallabha Ganapati Devanstanam in New York that should be considered the first. Today, there are nearly 1,000 temples in the United States . Regardless of where you live, you have the right to practice your faith.

A Guide To Temple Safety and Security

5 Things to Know About Visiting a Hindu Temple