Why Navaratri is my favorite festival of the year
Living DharmaShakti Initiative

Why Navaratri is my favorite festival of the year

By October 18, 2018 July 9th, 2024 No Comments

Outside of India, Diwali is arguably the best known Hindu festival. It’s earned colorful and bright celebrations at city halls, governor’s mansions, and the White House. It’s the topic of lofty resolutions and proclamations at every level of government. There’s even a colorful US postage stamp, earned after years of advocacy by the Hindu and Indian American communities.

But it’s not my favorite festival — if I may indulge in showing a preference in the realm of the sacred.

Rhythmic quick steps of hundreds of feet accompanied by the synchronized sway of arms, earthy drum beats and soulful praises to the Goddess guiding dancers’ graceful, yet energetic movements in concentric circles, whirling, embellished, colorful skirts and the sound of clinking silver and gold bangles and belled anklets, and sweat drying off in a crisp fall night’s air are the marks of my favorite festival — the autumnal Navarātri or the nine night celebration of the Feminine Divine.

There are four Navarātri throughout the year, but the one during the Hindu month of Ashwin is the most celebrated throughout India and the Hindu diaspora.  In some regions and traditions, each of the nine nights honor the nine avatār or forms of the Mother Goddess, Goddess Durga.  Others celebrate the nine days in three sets of three — the first three nights honoring Durgā (Goddess of Creation and Transformation), the second three nights honoring Lakshmi (Goddess of Prosperity and Wellbeing), and the last three honoring Saraswati (Goddess of Knowledge and Learning).  Navaratri is topped off with the 10th day celebration of Dussherā or Vijayādashami — commemorating the victory of Goddess Durgā over the demon, Mahishāsura, or the victory of Lord Rama over the demon-king Ravana.  Regardless of which legend one commemorates, the fierce goodness of Shakti stamping out negativity is both the cause and prayed for effect of the invocations of all devotees.

Throughout the world, the nine day festival is filled with fasting and sacrifices, meditation and reflection, rituals and bonfires, elaborate displays of dolls and processions, or music and dance.  For those of us with roots in the Indian state of Gujarat, celebration of Navaratri is marked with nine nights of the participatory religious folk dance form of garbā (and rās) — even here in the United States.  The origins of garba are ancient.  According to lay scholar Bipin Thanky, many believe the 11th century Mahārāni Minaldevi, when she married the Gujarati king, Mahārājā Karna I, brought with her a traditional folk dance from Karnātaka which evolved into garba in her new home.

The word garba originates from the Sanskrit word garbhadeep — garbha meaning womb and deep meaning clay lamp.  Traditionally, beautiful displays of ornately decorated murti and images of Goddesses and lit lamps anchor the center of any space in which garba is played.  Garba honors the Feminine Divine in all Her manifestations, celebrates fertility and samsāra  (the cycle of birth, life, death, and rebirth).  Some also have interpreted the circle of dancers as symbolic of the body and the center religious display as the Divinity that resides within every physical body, as well as the always changing material world which has at its core the eternal, unchanging Divine or Consciousness. Garba used to be the domain of women only (garbi was for men as was raas), but over time, women and men participate together in both garbā and rās.

Garba is played during other auspicious occasions, but it’s manifestation during Navarātri world over is a sight to be seen and an experience to behold.  Traditional garba songs invoke the legends of the Goddess, but may also touch upon the loving relationship of Lord Krishna and his devotee-consort, Rādhā (especially when the stick folk dance of rās is played).  They may cover the daily travails of rural, village life, such as the grind of daily chores, a wife requesting gifts of her husband on his travels to faraway villages, or playful complaints about in-laws.  The instruments include the traditional shehnāi; percussives like dhol, dholak, and tabla; the Indian flute, harmonium, and manjira (cymbals).  More modern renditions utilize synthesizers and Western drums.

Styles also vary between different regions of Gujarat, as can the combinations of steps.  There simple clap-and-snap routines (be tāli and trana tāli), and more involved permutations that incorporate moving forward and backwards, and combinations of half and full circles (heench, dhodhiu, etc.).  Fashions also change from year to year, but the foundational outfit for women is called chanyā choli, which consists traditionally of a cotton full-flare long skirt, midriff fitted blouse, and a long rectangular drape or odhni.  These sets are intricately embellished with embroidery, mirror-work, shells, and other work.  Men may wear loose or fitted drawstring cotton pyjama (pants) with long kurta (tunic-like shirts) or dhoti khedhiyu which are specially pleated bottoms with a decorated skirted top.

A key element of any Navarātri garba celebration is the ārati. An ārati is a devotional which sings praises to the God or Goddess being venerated, and ritually honors the murti or religious display with the circular waving of lit lamps.  The most common Navarātri ārati is entitled Jaya Ādhyā Shakti, the singing of which ends with the chanting of three shlokā or sacred Hindu couplets to the Goddess.  The meaning of this particular ārati is a perfect synopsis of the central role the Feminine Divine plays throughout Hindu life and at every level — from the daily, ritual to the philosophical and metaphysical.

When sung as a community of devotees in between the rapture of dancing together for the Goddess, ārati provides an uplifting experience like no other for me.

Ambemā ni Ārati*

Om Jaya Ādhyā Shakti
Mā Jaya Ādhyā Shakti
Akhandda Bhramāndda Nipāvyā
Paddave Pragattyā Mā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

Om Embodiment of Empowerment
Great Mother of the Cosmos
You beautified the cosmos, creating the galaxies, planets, stars, and the seven planes of heavens and of the netherworld
On the first eve of the month of Ashwin
Om Glory Om Glory, Mother of the Cosmos

Dvitiyā Be Swarup
Shiva Shakti Jānu Mā Shiva Shakti Jānu
Brahmā Ganapaṭi Gāye
Hara Gāye Hara Mā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

We venerate You in two forms
You are Shiva, You are Shakti, I know.
Lord Brahma and Lord Ganesh sing Your praises
All sing Your praises, Mother of All
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Ṭriṭiyā Ṭrana Swarup
Ṭribhuvana Mā Betthā Mā Ṭribhuvana Mā Betthā
Ṭrayāthhaki Ṭaraveni
Ṭu Ṭaraveni Mā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

On the third eve, we venerate Your three forms
Goddess Mahakali, Goddess Mahalakshmi, and Goddess Saraswati
Mother, who residing and ruling the three worlds (heavens, earth, netherworld)
These worlds are the fruits of Your power and protection
You Are the Giver of Liberation
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Chothe Chaṭurā Māhalakshmi Mā  
Sacharāchara Vyāpyā Mā  Sacharāchara Vyāpyā
Chār Bhujā Chau Dishā
Pragattyā Dakshinamā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

On the fourth eve, we venerate You in the form of Mahalakshmi pervading the Cosmos with prosperity and wellbeing
As the beautiful four-armed Goddess with a mace, sword, shield, and lotus
You created Deva (divine beings) in the South for the wellbeing of all life
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Panchami Pancha Rushi
Panchami Guna Padma Mā Panchami Guna Padma
Pancha Ṭaṭva Ṭyā Sohiye
Panche Ṭaṭvo Mā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

The five great sages praise You,
You who sit upon the Lotus
Through Your grace, the sages learned about the five basic elements (air, earth, water, fire, ether) essential to the cycle of cycle
You, the Creator of the five elements
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Shasti Ṭu Nārāyani 
Mahishāsura Māryo Mā Mahishāsura Māryo
Nara Nāri Nā Rupe
Vyāpyā Sarve Mā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

On the 6th eve, we venerate You in the form Nārāyani,
The Slayer of the demon Mahishāsura
You are the slayer of Mahishāsura who represents our negative thoughts and actions
You have manifested in and as every man and woman
You are immanent and transcendent
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Sapṭame Sapṭa Pāṭāl 
Sandhyā Sāviṭri Mā Sandhyā Sāvitri.
Gau Gangā Gāyaṭri
Gauri Giṭā Mā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

On the 7th eve, we venerate You who forced all negativity to descend into the seven netherworlds
You manifest as prayer and as Savitri, the consort of Brahma
You manifest as the ever-giving and compassionate cow, the cleansing waters of the Ganga, the Gayatri mantra, Goddess Parvati, and as the knowledge of the Gita to purify our hearts and minds for self-realization
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Ashttami Ashtta Bhujā
Āi Ānandā Mā Āi Ānandā
Sunivara Munivara Janamya
Deve Deityo Mā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

As the beautiful eight-armed Goddess with a blessing and grace mudra, mace, sword, disc of auspicious vision, conch, trident, bow and arrow, and trident
You manifest as the Goddess of Bliss
Who gave birth to all people, and gifted the sages and noble souls with inner vision, and created the cycle of samsara and the paths to enlightenment
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Navami Nava Kul Nāga
Seve Nava Durgā Mā Seve Nava Durgā
Navaraṭri Nā Pujana
Shivarāṭri Nā Arachana
Kidhā Hara Brahmā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

The Nine Serpent Dynasty is protected by Your nine forms
On the ninth eve, we venerate You as Goddess Durga’s nine forms
Venerate You in Navaraṭri
Make offerings to Him on Shivaratri
Lord Brahma tells us all
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Dashami Dasha Avaṭāra
Jaya Vijiyā Dashami Ma Jaya Vijiyā Dashami
Rāma E Rāma Ramādyā
Rāvana Royo Mā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

On the 10th eve, we venerate Your 10th Manifestation
The Victorious One
You playfully blessed Lord Rama as a child
You Empowered Lord Rāma’s defeat of the demon-king Rāvana
In his defeat, even Rāvana cried only for You
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Ekādashi Agiyāras 
Kātyāyani Kāmā Mā Kātyayani Kāmā
Kāma Durgā Kālikā
Shyāmā Ne Rāmā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

On the 11th eve, we venerate You as Goddess Kātyāyani, who is brighter than the moon
You are a Slayer of Evil like Goddess Durga and Goddess Kāli
You are an Upholder of Social Justice and Righteousness like Lord Krishnā and Lord Rāmā
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Bārase Bāra Rupa 
Bahuchari Ambā Mā Mā Bahuchari Ambā Mā
Battuka Bhairava Sohiye
Kāra Bhairava Sohiye
Ṭārā Che Ṭujamā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

On the 12th eve, we venerate You as the beautiful, childlike Bahuchari Ambā Mā
Praised and adored by Shiva’s Devotees, Battuka and Kāra
Even those attaining liberation, still venerate You
We are all your children
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Ṭerase Ṭulajā Rupa 
Ṭu Ṭāruni Māṭā Mā Ṭu Ṭāruni Māṭā
Brahmā Vishnu Sadā Shiva
Guna Ṭārā Gāṭā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

The 13th eve, we venerate You as Ṭulajā Rupa, Mother Ṭāruni,
The Savior, the Liberator from Samsara —  the cycle of death and rebirth
Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu, and Lord Shiva sing Your praises
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Chaudashe Chaudā Rupa
Chanddi Chamunddā Mā Chanddi Chamunddā
Bhāva Bhakṭi Kāie Āpo. 
Chaṭurāie Kaie Āpo
Sihavāhini Māṭā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

The 14th eve, we venerate Your 14th manifestation
The Slayer of Demons Chanda and Munda
Bless us with love and devotion
Bless us with discernment
O Goddess who rides a lion
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Puname Kumbha Bharyo 
Sāmbharajo Karunā Mā Sāmbharajo Karunā
Vashishtta Deve Vakhānyā
Mārkandda Deve Vakhānyā
Gai Shubha Kavitā
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

On the 15th eve, the eve of the full moon, communities gather
O Compassionate One, hear our prayers for liberation
The great sage Vashishtta sings your praises
The great sage Mārkandda sings your praises
thru beautiful and auspicious poems
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Savanṭa Sora Saṭṭavaān 
Sorase Bāvisamā Mā Sorase Bāvisama
Savanṭa Sore Pragattyā
Revā Ne Ṭire
Mā Gangā Ne Ṭire
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

In Vikram Samvat (Hindu calendar) year 1657 and 1622
You manifested on the banks of the Holy Revā and Gangā rivers
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Ṭrambāvatti Nagari Āi
Rupāvatti Nagari Mā Manchāvatti Nagari
Sora Sahasra Tyā Sohiye
Kshamā Karo Gauri
Mā Dayā Karo Gauri
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

The holy towns of Ṭrambāvatti, Rupāvatti  and Manchāvāti
You have manifested in 16,000 beautiful forms
Forgive us O Mother for any errors in our prayers
Show Mercy upon us O Mother by purifying our thoughts,  words, and awareness
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Shiva Shakṭi Ni Ārṭi 
Je Koi Gāshe Mā Je Bhāve Gāshe
Bhane Shivānanda Swāmi
Sukha Sampaṭi Thhāshe.
Har Kailāshe Jāshe
Mā Ambā Dukha Harashe
Om Jayo Jayo Mā Jagadambe

Whoever sings these praises and glories of Shiva and Shakti
With whatever feelings
The poet Shivānanda believes wholeheartedly
They will blessed
They all will reach Kailash where Shiva and Shakti one, and the Consciousness and self unite
Goddess Ambā will defeat every one of their sorrows and pains
Om Glory and Victory to the Mother of the Cosmos, Mother of the Universe

Karpur Gauram Karunāvaṭāram
Sansāra Sāram Bhujagendra Hāram
Sadā Vasantam Hridayāravinde
Bhavam Bhavāni Sahiṭam Namāmi 

The One Who Is As Pure As Camphor
The Embodiment Of Kindness And Compassion
The One Who Is The Essence Of The World
The One With The Serpent King As His Garland
Always Residing In The Lotus-like Hearts Of Righteous Beings
To That Lord With Whom Goddess Bhavani (Parvati) Is Always By His Side

Mangalam Bhagwan Vishnu
Mangalam Garuda Dhwaja
Mangalam Pundarikāksham
Mangalāya Ṭano Hari

All Auspiciousness To Lord Vishnu
All Auspiciousness To One With The Garuda Flag.
All Auspiciousness To One Who Has Eyes Like The Lotus Flowers
And Auspiciousness To Hari

Sarva Mangala Māngalye
Shive Sarvārtha Sādhike
Sharanye Tryayambake Gauri
Nārāyanni Namostu Te

The Auspiciousness Of All Auspiciousness
The Good, To The Accomplisher Of All Goals Of Life
The Source Of Refuge, The Mother Of The Three Worlds
The Goddess Who Is Rays Of Light
Unveiler Of  Consciousness
We Bow And Pay Our Obeisances To You

*Special thanks to my parents, Bhupendra and Urvashi Shah, for their help in translating.

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10/30/22Sanatana Dharma in the Movies

Hinduism is often referred to as Sanatana Dharma (the ‘eternal way’), indicating the religion’s emphasis on eternal truths that are applicable to all of humanity. Thus, it makes sense that a medley of mainstream movies could convey Hindu ideals that resonate strongly with audiences, while not actually talking directly about anything understood by the public as Hindu.

In Groundhog Day, for example, when cynical TV weatherman Phil Collins discovers he is trapped in a time loop, living the same day over and over, only to be released after transforming his character from an egocentric narcissist to a thoughtful and kindhearted philanthropist, it’s hard not to be reminded of the Hindu notion of samsara, a cycle of reincarnation from which a soul attains liberation by realizing its divine nature after lifetimes of spiritual practice. 

Or in The Matrix when Neo chooses the red pill of knowledge over the blue pill of ignorance, and is subsequently unplugged from an illusory world and cast into the truth of reality, the film seems to be conveying a foundational Vedic teaching: that we must transcend our own ignorance — a product of maya, literally meaning “illusion” in Sanskrit — to uncover our true nature. Hindu concepts appear to be further exhibited in Neo’s relationship with Morpheus, which starkly reflects that of a disciple and guru, as the latter reveals to the former the knowledge he needs in order to understand this “true nature.” As Neo’s faith in Morpheus’ words develops, so does his capacity to see past the illusion of the matrix, garnering him the ability to manipulate the laws of this false reality, similar to the Jedi and yogis described earlier.

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10/29/22Hinduism and American Thought

Hindu Americans and the Vedanta philosophy have significantly influenced notable intellectuals such as Henry  David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman, J.D. Salinger, Christopher Isherwood, Aldous Huxley, Huston Smith, and Joseph Campbell just to name a few. Some feel that it started back In 1812, when Thomas Jefferson recommended to John Adams the writings of Joseph Priestley, a Unitarian minister who had published works that compared Christianity to other religions — Hinduism in particular — Adam’s interest was piqued.

Going through Priestley’s writings, Adams became riveted by Hindu thought, as he launched into a five-year exploration of Eastern philosophy. As his knowledge of Hinduism and ancient Indian civilization grew, so did his respect for it. This legacy took shape in the 1830s as Transcendentalism, a philosophical, social, and literary movement that emphasized the spiritual goodness inherent in all people despite the corruption imposed on an individual by society and its institutions. Espousing that divinity pervades all of nature and humanity, Transcendentalists believed divine experience existed in the everyday, and held progressive views on women’s rights, abolition, and education. At the heart of this movement were three of America’s most influential authors: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman, and Henry David Thoreau.

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10/27/22The Hindu Diaspora in Afghanistan

Before becoming an Islamic state, Afghanistan was once home to a medley of religious practices, the oldest being Hinduism. A long time ago, much of Afghanistan was part of an ancient kingdom known as Gandhara, which also covered parts of northern Pakistan.Today, many of Afghanistan’s province names, though slightly altered, are clearly Sanskrit in origin, hinting at the region’s ancient past. To cite a few examples, Balkh comes from the Sanskrit Bhalika, Nangarhar from Nagarahara, and Kabul from Kubha. Though Gandhara’s earliest mention can be found in the Vedas, it is better known for its connections to the Hindu epics the Mahabharata and Ramayana. There is also the historic Asamai temple in Kabul located on a hill named after the Hindu Goddess of hope, Asha. The temple has survived numerous conflicts and attacks but it still stands. The temple is a remnant from Hindu Shahi Kings, who ruled from the Kabul Valley as far back as 850 CE. However, Hindus are indigenous but endangered minorities in Afghanistan, numbering approximately 700 out of a community that recently included over 8,000 members. Many have left for new homes, include in New York which is home to a large Afghani Hindu population.

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10/26/22Dogs and Diwali

According to the 2021-2022 National Pet Owners Survey, 70% of U.S. households (90.5 million homes) owned a pet as of 2022, with 69 million U.S. households having a pet dog. Recognized for their loyalty, service, companionship, and the special relationship they have with humans, Hinduism’s reverence for dogs is expansive, as they are worshiped in festivals and appreciated in connection to a number of Hindu gods and stories. Observed in Nepal, Bhutan, and the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal, Kukar Tihar (the 2nd day of Tihar) honors dogs as messengers that help guide spirits of the deceased across the River of Death. In the Mahabharata, Yudhisthira, his brothers, and the queen Draupadi renounced their kingdom to ascend to the heavens. However, Yudhisthira was the only one that survived along with a dog that had joined them. Yudhisthira refused to go to heaven without the dog, who turned out to be Yamaraj, the God of Death. Sarama, the “female dog of the gods,” was famously asked by Indra to retrieve a herd of cows that were stolen. When the thieves were caught, they tried to bribe Sarama but she refused and now represents those who do not wish to possess but instead find what has been lost. The symbolic import of dogs is further driven in connection with Dattatreya, as he is commonly depicted with four of them to represent the Vedas, the Yugas, the stages of sound, and the inner forces of a human being (will, faculty, hope, and desire).

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10/25/22Black Panther

In 2018, the long-running Marvel comic series Black Panther, was brought to the big screen. A more prominent scene is when M’baku, a character vying for the throne of the fictional country of Wakanda, challenges T’Challa/Black Panther, and yells, “Glory to Hanuman.” However, despite dharma as an unsaid aspect of the characters’ interactions, Black Panther relies slightly more on Hindu symbolism than philosophy. But the significance of Hanuman as a transcendent deity cannot be overlooked, especially at a time when dialogues about global migration, the right to worship, and access to natural resources are becoming more overtly racialized. The film provides more than just an entertainment escape: it reimagines a world in which the current racial and theological paradigms are challenged forcefully. With the film expected to have at least several sequels, there will be more opportunities to reference Hinduism and Hindu iconography.

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10/24/22Diwali

One of the most celebrated Hindu festivals, Diwali (dee-VAH-lee) or Deepavali (dee-PAH-va-lee) commemorates the victory of good over evil during the course of five days. The word refers to rows of diyas — or clay lamps — which are put all around homes and places of worship. The light from these lamps symbolizes the illumination within all of us, which can overcome ignorance, represented by darkness. Devotees gather in local temples, homes, or community centers, to spend time with loved ones, make positive goals, and appreciate life.

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10/23/22Dhanteras

On this day, because Diwali is a time for dana (charitable giving) and seva (selfless service), Hindus traditionally perform a deep cleaning of their homes and surroundings, as cleanliness is believed to invoke the presence and blessings of Goddess Lakshmi who, as mentioned earlier, is the Goddess of wealth and prosperity. Many will also make rangoli or kolum (colored patterns of flowers, powder, rice, or sand made on the floor), which are also said to invite auspiciousness. Observers thus begin Diwali by cultivating a spirit of generosity, doing things like giving money to charities, feeding the hungry, and endeavoring to help those in need.

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10/22/22The Hindu Diaspora in Bali

The spread of Hinduism to Southeast Asia established powerful Hindu kingdoms in the region, most notably the Khmer Empire that encompassed modern Cambodia and Thailand, and influential kingdoms in the Indonesia archipelago. Though Buddhism and Hinduism co-existed in the region for several centuries, Buddhism (and Islam in Indonesia) eventually replaced Hinduism as a primary religion. Today, there are approximately five million Hindus in Indonesia, primarily in Bali. As Bali is roughly 90 percent Hindu, this makes it a religious enclave in a country that contains the world’s largest Muslim population. There are also roughly 60,000 Cham Hindus in Vietnam, and smaller numbers in Thailand. Hinduism in Fiji, Malaysia, and Singapore is a much more recent phenomenon, with Hindus arriving in the 19th and early 20th centuries as indentured laborers. Today, Hindus are prominent in politics and business in all three countries, though they continue to experience discrimination as religious minorities.

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10/21/22Smithsonian/American History Exhibit - American Indian experience

In 2014, the first Smithsonian exhibition chronicling the experiences of Indian Americans, many of whom are Hindus,  in the US was unveiled at their National Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC. This exhibit was one of the largest ever produced by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center, occupying 5,000 square feet and reaching millions of visitors. The message behind “Beyond Bollywood: Indian Americans Shape the Nation,” aimed to dispel stereotypes and myths that have followed Indian immigrants since they first arrived in the U.S. in 1790. The exhibit explored the heritage, daily experiences, and the many diverse contributions that immigrants and Indian Americans have made to the United States. The exhibition at the Museum of Natural History includes historical and contemporary images and artifacts, including those that document histories of discrimination and resistance, convey daily experiences, and symbolize achievements across the professions. Music and visual artworks provide commentary on the Indian American experience and form an important component of the exhibition. In 2017, this exhibit went on the road, traveling from city to city so that all could see the impact of Indians on American culture.

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10/20/22Swami Yogananda

Paramahansa Yogananda was a Hindu monk and yogi who came to the United States in 1920 and lived here for the last 32 years of his life. He is considered to be the first major Hindu Guru to settle in the United States. When Swami Yogananda arrived in the US, he made his first speech, made to the International Congress of Religious Liberals, on “The Science of Religion,” and was enthusiastically received. It was soon after that he founded the Self-Realization Fellowship (also known as Yogoda Satsanga Society (YSS) of India) and introduced millions of Americans to the ancient science and philosophy of meditation and Kriya yoga (path of attainment). In 1927, he was invited to the White House by President Calvin Coolidge, making Swami Yogananda the first prominent Indian and Hindu to be hosted in the White House.

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10/19/22Avatar

For those of us who are Hindu, we have noticed that some of the biggest Hollywood films produced in the last several decades have mirrored many of Hinduism's most fundamental philosophical ideas. One example is Avatar, a film named for the Sanskrit word avatāra (‘descent’), in which the protagonist, Jake Sully, enters and explores an alien world called Pandora by inhabiting the body of an indigenous 10-foot, blue-skinned being, an idea taken from Hinduism’s depictions of the various avatars of the blue god Vishnu, who are said to descend into our world for upholding dharma. Instead of aligning with the interests of the humans, who merely want to mine Pandora for the valuable mineral unobtanium, Sully fights alongside the alien humanoids native to the world, called Na’vi, who live in harmony with nature, believe all life is sacred, and that all life is connected by a divine force — teachings synonymous with Hinduism. Thus, similar to the avatars of Vishnu, Sully defends and preserves a spiritual culture by defeating those who would destroy it for materialistic pursuit. While this film doesn’t indicate in any direct way that they have anything to do with Hinduism, it’s clear they are communicating Hindu ideas that everyone relates to and understands on a profound level.

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10/18/22Swami Prabhupada

The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), also known as the Hare Krishna movement, was founded in 1966 by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, a highly respected Vaishnava  (devotion to the god Vishnu and his incarnations avatars) scholar and monk. At the age of 70, Swami Prabhupada traveled from India to New York City to bring the Bhakti tradition, or Krishna Consciousness, to the west. In the 11 years before his passing in 1977, Srila Prabhupada translated, with elaborate commentaries, 60 volumes of Vaishnava literature; established more than 100 temples on six continents; and initiated 5,000 disciples. Today, his writings are studied in universities around the globe and are translated into nearly 100 languages. To date, ISKCON has over 400 temples,  dozens of rural communities and eco-sustainable projects, and nearly 100 vegetarian restaurants world-wide with 56 of them in the US. 

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Who was that Hare Krishna at the start of “Get Back”?

10/17/22The Hindu Diaspora in Africa

Hinduism came in waves to Africa, with Southern Africa getting Hindu workers during the early years of British colonization, while East and West Africa experienced Hindu migration during the 20th century. Hinduism’s roughly 0.2% presence in Africa is seen as so inconsequential, most data organizations don’t even bother explicitly mentioning it in their census reports. But Hinduism is Ghana's fastest growing religion and one in which there are steady populations in both Northern and Southern African states. Durban is now home to most of South Africa’s 1.3 million Indians, making it, according to some sources, the largest Indian city outside of India, and thus a most powerful hub of Hindu practice. In the US, there are both communities of African Hindus who have migrated, as well as Black Hindus, who according to the 2019 Pew Survey, make up 2% of the Hindu population in the US.

Hinduism Beyond Africa

Hinduism Around the World

10/16/22Star Wars

George Lucas, the creator of Star Wars, drew much of the inspiration for this major cultural phenomenon from the teachings of his mentor who was a lifelong student of Vedanta. In these films, many aspects of Hinduism are interwoven with the story. Some include Hanuman (Chewbaca and Ewoks), Shakti (force,energy), Yodha (Yoda), Brahman (infinite being). Besides the many philosophical parallels that can be highlighted between Star Wars and Hinduism, Star Wars also exhibits similarities in story structure and character roles to one of India’s famous epics, the Ramayana. Never seen the movie? Now might be the time to see how universally relatable Hindu thought can truly be.

What do the Matrix, Avatar, Groundhog Day, and Star Wars have to do with Hinduism?

10/15/22Ayurveda

The term Ayurveda is derived from the Sanskrit words ayur (life) and veda (science or knowledge), translation to the knowledge of life. Ayurveda is considered to be the oldest healing science, originating in 1000 BCE. Based on the five elements that comprise the universe (space, air, fire, water, and earth), they combine and permutate to create three health principles  that govern the functioning and interplay of a person’s body, mind, and consciousness. These energies are referred to as doshas in Sanskrit. Ayurveda can be used in conjunction with Western medicine and Ayurvedic schools have gained approval as educational institutions in several states.

5 Things to Know About Ayurveda

In Hinduism, What is the Relationship Between Spirituality and Health?

10/14/22OM

While it’s synonymous to meditation, and seen simply as a doorway to tranquility for yogic practitioners, the true meaning of Om is deeply embedded in Hindu philosophy.

The word Om is defined by Hindu scripture as being the original vibration of the universe, which all other vibrations are able to manifest. Within Hinduism, the meaning and connotations of Om is perceived in a variety of ways. Though heard and often written as “om,” due to the way it sounds when it is repeatedly chanted, the sacred syllable is originally and more accurately spelled as “aum.” Broken down, the three letters of A – U – M represent a number of sacred trinities such as different conditions of consciousness (waking state, dreaming state, and deep sleep state), the deities in charge of the creation, preservation, and destruction of the universe ( Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva), aspects of time (past, present, and future), among many others. 

5 Things to Know About Om

Religious Symbols

10/28/22Dr. Anandibai Joshi

Dr. Anandi Gopal Joshi is credited with being the first woman from India to study medicine in the United States. Born in Bombay in 1865, she was married at the age of ten to an older man who had been her teacher. Dr. Joshi had a child at the age of 13, but the child died when only 10 days old. She believed that with better medical care, the child would have lived, and she frequently cited this as motivation for her desire to attend medical school. Her husband encouraged her in her academic pursuits and in 1883, Joshee joined the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania, now known as the Drexel University College of Medicine in Philadelphia. She graduated in 1886 with her degree in medicine; her M.D. thesis focused on Hindu obstetrics. Unfortunately,  Dr. Joshi was only able to practice medicine for a few months before passing away from tuberculosis.

Science in Hinduism

10/13/22The Hindu Diaspora in Guyana

Hinduism is the religion of almost 25% of Guyana’s population, making it the country with the highest percentage of Hindus in the Western Hemisphere. But from British professional recruiting agents targeting rural and uneducated Indians, to the aggressiveness of Christian proselytization of Hindus with a promise of a better life, Hinduism has been in a steady decline for many decades with many escaping to the United States for better opportunities and to practice their religion freely. Today, over 80% of Guyanese Americans live in the Northeastern United States with heavy concentrations in New Jersey and in New York, where a “Little Guyana”  helps these immigrants stay connected to their Guyanese roots.

Hinduism beyond India: Guyana

Hinduism Around the World

10/12/22Karwa Chauth

Karwa Chauth or Karva Chauth (kuhr-vah-CHOATH) is a North Indian holiday in which wives fast for the longevity and health of their husbands, however, many unmarried women celebrate in hopes of meeting their ideal life partner. Typically, wives spend the day preparing gifts to exchange, and fasting until the moon is visible. It is believed that its light symbolizes love and blessings of a happy life. While there are varying legends behind this holiday’s traditions and meaning, the message of honoring the relationships women form with their family and community prevails.

Karwa Chauth

Hindu Holidays & Dharmic Days Calendar

10/11/22Hinduism and Music

As sound vibration can affect the most subtle element of creation, it is interpreted in Hindu scriptures that spiritual sound vibrations can affect the atman (soul) in a particularly potent way. Such spiritual sound vibrations are said to have the ability to awaken our original spiritual consciousness and help us remember that we are beyond the ambivalence of life, and actually originate from the Divine. As such, the main goal of many types of Hindu musical expression is to help stir us out of our spiritual slumber by evoking feelings of love and connection that help us to better perceive the presence of the Divine within all. Some of the more popular examples of musical expressions within Hinduism include shlokas (verse, or poem), mantras (sacred syllables repeated in prayer), kirtans (congregational singing of mantras), and bhajans (devotional songs). You can find musical spiritual expressions through the US in temples,  Mandirs, and community centers.

The Power of Music According to Hinduism

What is Kirtan?

10/10/22Yoga

Yoga is considered Hinduism’s gift to humanity. At its broadest, yoga, from the root word “yuj” in Sanskrit, means to unite. Most Hindu texts discuss yoga as a practice to control the senses and ultimately, the mind. The most famous is the Bhagavad Gita (dating back to 6th-3rd Century BCE), in which Krishna speaks of four types of yoga – bhakti, or devotion; jnana, or knowledge; karma, or action; and dhyana, or concentration (often referred to as raja yoga, though not all sources agree on the term) – as paths to achieve moksha (enlightenment), the ultimate goal according to Hindu understanding. According to a 2016 study,  in the United States there are an estimated 36.7 million people currently practicing yoga in the United States.

Yoga.Day

The Hindu Roots of Yoga

10/9/22Swami Vivekananda

According to Vedic cosmology, 108 is the basis of creation, representing the universe and all our existence. As the soul is encased in two types of bodies: the physical body (made of earth, water, fire, air, and ether) and the subtle body (composed of intelligence, mind and ego), Swami Viveknanda is often attributed with bringing Hindu teachings and practices — such as yoga and transcendental meditation — to Western audiences. In 1893, he was officially introduced to the United States at the World’s Parliament of Religions in Chicago, where in his speech he called for religious tolerance and described Hinduism as “a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance.” The day that Swami Vivekananda delivered his speech at the Parliament of Religions is now known as ‘World Brotherhood Day.’ And his birthday, known as Swami Vivekananda Jayanti, is honored on January 12th each year. On this day he is commemorated and recognized for his contributions as a modern Hindu monk and respected guru of the Vedanta philosophy of Hinduism. In 1900, Swami Viveknanda founded the Vedanta Society in California and to date there are 36 Vedanta Society Centers in the United States.

Swami Vivekananda Influenced Countless Americans

Hindu Holidays & Dharmic Days Calendar

10/8/22108

According to Vedic cosmology, 108 is the basis of creation, representing the universe and all our existence. As the soul is encased in two types of bodies: the physical body (made of earth, water, fire, air, and ether) and the subtle body (composed of intelligence, mind and ego), 108 plays a significant role in keeping these two bodies healthily connected. Hindus believe the body holds seven chakras, or pools of energy, which begin at the bottom of the spine and go all the way down to the top of the head and it is believed there are 108 energy lines that converge to form the heart chakra. Ayurveda says there are 108 hidden spots in the body called marma points, where various tissues like muscles, veins, and ligaments meet. These are vital points of life force, and when they are out of balance, energy cannot properly flow throughout the body. Sun salutations, yogic asanas that honor the sun god Surya, are generally completed in nine rounds of 12 postures, totaling 108. Mantra meditation is usually chanted on a set of 108 beads.   In Hinduism there are 108 Upanishads, the sacred texts of wisdom from ancient sages. Additionally, in the Sanskrit alphabet, there are 54 letters. Each letter has a feminine, or Shakti, and masculine, or Shiva, quality. 54 multiplied by 2 equals 108. Ultimately, breathwork, chanting, studying scripture, and asana’s help harmonize one’s energy with the energy of the supreme spiritual source. These processes become especially effective when they are performed in connection with the number 108. Hindu scriptures strive to remind people of this divine commonality by continuously highlighting the innumerable threads connecting everything in existence. One of these threads is the number 108.

5 Things to know about 108

Here's How the Number 108 Binds Us to the Universe

10/7/22The Hindu Diaspora in Trinidad/Tobago

A decade after slavery was abolished in 1834, the British government began importing indentured labor from India to work on their estates in other countries such as Trinidad and Tobago.  From 1845 to 1917, the ships would continue to arrive, carrying over 140,000 Indians to the island, facilitating Trinidad's population growth from Indian laborers. Today, there are roughly 240,000 declared Hindus in Trinidad and Tobago, comprising about 18% of the island’s population. There are a total of about 300 temples on the island, welcoming all who wish to enter and where many beloved Hindu festivals take place. But for some, the migration journey doesn’t end as New York and Florida have seen the development of large Indo-Caribbean communities.

Hinduism beyond India: Trinidad and Tobago

10/6/22Tattoos

From ancient tribes to present-day devotees, tattoos have held a special place in Hinduism for centuries. In the Indian states of Bihar and Madhya Pradesh, the Ramnaami community invoked Rama’s protection with tattoos of the name “Rama” in Sanskrit on every inch of their skin, including the tongue and inside the lips.The Mahabharata tells the story of the Pandavas that were exiled to the Kutch district of Gujarat. Today, their descendants - members of the Ribari tribe - live as their ancestors did, with women covered in tattoos that symbolize their people’s strong spirit for survival. Some Hindus consider tattoos as protective emblems,such as tattoos of Hanuman are often used to relieve physical or mental pain. People will often get tattoos of other deities to invoke their blessings. Mehndi, a plant-based temporary tattoo, is commonly done at weddings and religious ceremonies as a form of celebration of love and spirituality. While tattoos have been in Hindu communities for centuries, tattoos as symbols of honor, devotion, and even fashion are incredibly popular today. Hindus and non Hindus alike adorn themselves with Hindu emblems and tattoos that reflect Hindu teachings.

Guidelines for Commercial Use of Hindu Images

10/5/22Navaratri

Navaratri (nuhv-uh-RA-three) is a nine night celebration of the feminine divine that occurs four times a year — the spring and fall celebrations being amongst the more widely celebrated. Some traditions honor the nine manifestations of Goddess Durga, while others celebrate the three goddesses (Durga, Lakshmi, and Saraswati) with three days dedicated to each. This is a time to recognize the role in which the loving, compassionate, and gentle — yet sometimes powerful and fierce — feminine energy plays in our lives.

Nine Things to Know About Navaratri

Hindu Holidays & Dharmic Days Calendar

10/4/22Dussehra

Dussehra (duh-sheh-RAH) or Vijayadashmi (vi-juhyuh-dushuh-mee) celebrates the victory of Lord Rama over the ten-headed demon King Ravana. This also marks the end of Ramalila — a brief retelling of the Ramayana and the story of Rama, Sita, and Lakshman in the form of dramatic reading or dance. It also signifies the end of negativity and evil within us (vices, biases, prejudices) for a fresh new beginning. Dussehra often coincides with the end of Navratri and Duga Puja, and celebrations can last ten days, with huge figures of Ravana set ablaze as a reminder that good always prevails over evil.

Hindu Holidays & Dharmic Days Calendar

Hinduism 101 & Women

10/3/22Ahimsa + Cow sanctuaries

Many Hindus hold reverence for the cow as a representation of mother earth, fertility, and Hindu values of selfless service, strength, dignity, and non-harming. Though not all Hindus are vegetarian, for this reason many traditionally abstain from eating beef. This is often linked with the concept of ahimsa (non-violence), which can be applied to diet choices and our interactions with the environment, and potentially determine our next birth, according to the doctrine of karma. This is part of the reason that some Hindus may choose a vegetarian lifestyle as an expression of ahimsa as well as explains the growing number of cow protection projects that are led by individuals who have felt compelled to put their Hindu values into practice. The US is home to several cow protection projects and sanctuaries

Dairy Is Traditionally Sattvic Food, but the Way We Treat Cows Today Can Be Tamasic

Cultured Meat and Animal-Free Dairy Upends the Plant-Based Food Discussion

10/1/2022First Hindu temple in US

The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 facilitated the journey of many Indian immigrants to the United States. In this new land, many created home shrines and community temples to practice and hold pujas (services). As Hindu American populations grew in metropolitan and rural areas, so did the need to find a permanent temple site for worship. In 1906, the Vedanta Society built the Old Temple in San Francisco, California but as this was not considered a formal temple, many don’t credit this with being the first. Others believe it is the Shiva Murugan Temple built in 1957 in Concord, California, whereas others believe it is the Maha Vallabha Ganapati Devanstanam in New York that should be considered the first. Today, there are nearly 1,000 temples in the United States . Regardless of where you live, you have the right to practice your faith.

A Guide To Temple Safety and Security

5 Things to Know About Visiting a Hindu Temple